Development and use of a convolutional neural network for hierarchical appearance-based localization
S. Cebollada, L. PayŠ, X. Jiang, O. Reinoso
Artificial Intelligence Review (29/09/2021)
Ed. Springer ISBN:1573-7462 ISSN:1573-7462 DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s10462-021-10076-2 - 1-28
This paper reports and evaluates the adaption and re-training of a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) with the aim of tackling the visual localization of a mobile robot by means of a hierarchical approach. The proposed method addresses the localization problem from the information captured by a catadioptric vision sensor mounted on the mobile robot. A CNN is adapted and evaluated with a twofold purpose. First, to perform a rough localization step (room retrieval) by means of the output layer. Second, to refine this localization in the retrieved room (fine localization step) by means of holistic descriptors obtained from intermediate layers of the same CNN. The robot estimates its position within the selected room/s through a nearest neighbour search by comparing the obtained holistic descriptor with the visual model of the retrieved room/s. Additionally, this method takes advantage of the likelihood information provided by the output layer of the CNN. This likelihood is helpful to determine which rooms should be considered in the fine localization process. This novel hierarchical localization method constitutes an efficient and robust solution, as shown in the experimental section even in presence of severe changes of the lighting conditions.